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Birding in South Africa, November-December 2002

Pretoria, Pilanesberg National Park, Kruger National Park, Blyde River Canyon

Three species of vultures: Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Hooded Vulture. Video frame, 36K Jpeg

Two Lappet-faced Vultures (the large dark birds) surrounded by White-backed Vultures. A Hooded Vulture (the smaller brown bird) is walking between the White-backed Vultures.
Kruger National Park.


With more than 900 species of birds recorded (about 1/10th of all species in the world), South Africa is a birders paradise.

The main reason for me travelling to South Africa was the total solar eclipse on December 4th. The eclipse wasn't particularly successful but our group also did a lot of game viewing (great fun!) and most birding was done either as part of the game viewing or at the rest camps. Fortunately, our guides knew quite a lot about birds and they found many species we otherwise would have missed. Still, passerines are way underrepresented in our bird list. Species I would have no problem identifying at home - like the Willow Warbler - wasn't "ticked" here, there are simply too many confusing species of "Little Brown Jobs" in southern Africa. As it was our first visit to South Africa and the visit was short, we concentrated on the more easily identifiable species.

So there are a lot of reasons to make another visit.

Major sites visited

The capital city. Most birds were seen in the garden of the Jensen Safaris guest house or within a few streets from the guest house.
Pilanesberg National Park (PNP)
Pilanesberg National Park is the third largest national park in South Africa, located some 120 km north-west of Pretoria. It comprises an almost perfectly circular mountain massif some 25 km in diameter. It's the caldera of an ancient volcano that erupted about 1300 million years ago. More than 300 species of birds have been recorded.
Tswaing Meteorite Crater
The Tswaing Meteorite Crater is an impressive sight. The crater is a little more than one kilometer in diameter and 100 meters deep. It is located about 40 km north of Pretoria. And birding can be quite rewarding. Come as early in the morning as possible - especially in the summer.
Kruger National Park (KNP)
Covering an area of nearly two million hectares, world-famous Kruger National Park is the flagship of South Africa's national parks. Kruger is home to more than 500 species of birds and 147 species of mammals.
Blyde River Canyon (BRC)
The Blyde River Canyon is an impressive gorge - the third largest in the world. Quite a few species characteristic of rocky areas were seen, including Cape Rock-Thrush, Familiar Chat, and Mocking Cliff-Chat.


30/11: Pretoria, PNP
The moment we arrived at the Jensen Safaris guest house we noticed a lot of birds in the garden. We had our first bulbuls, mynas, and weavers, a Karoo Thrush (the only one we saw on the trip), a Crested Barbet, and a lot of swifts (including Little Swift) and swallows in the air.
After lunch we went to PNP. Along the road we had several Black-shouldered Kites and red-rumped swallows. I wasn't able to identify any of the swallows.
At the Bakubung Gate PNP we saw our first Red-winged Starlings. Driving through PNP quickly produced an overwhelming number of species. It was really a hard job trying to id as much as possible. Mammals: Elephant, Giraffe, White Rhino, etc.
1/12: PNP
Morning safari starting as soon the gate opened at 05:30.
After breakfast we visited a hide at a dam (sorry, didn't get the name) producing Darter, Spoonbill, three species of ducks, our first African Fish-Eagle, Kori Bustard, Common Ringed Plovers (funny to see familiar species here), Blacksmith Lapwings, Pied Kingfisher, and Greater Striped Swallows. Our first Nile Crocodile, Burchell's Zebra, Hippo.
After lunch we visited the Ratlhogo Hide. Unfortunately the waterhole was dry. Most noteworthy were two Verreaux's Eagles. Lots of Helmeted Guineafowls. Mammals: Warthog, Kudu, Impala.
Game viewing later that day also gave us a lot of bee-eaters (mostly Europeans), Lilac-breasted Roller, and a Secretarybird. Mammals: Wildebeest, Sable Antelope, Buffalo, Eland, Brown Hyaena, etc.
The Bakgatla Camp was home to Crested Barbet, lots of bulbuls, Pied Crows flying over the camp, Cape White-eye, sparrows, and many Southern Masked-Weavers.
2/12: PNP, Tswaing Meteorite Crater, Pretoria
Morning safari again starting at 05:30.
Our first Ostrich at the Mankwe Dam. Mammals: Springbok, Black Rhino, Lion, etc.
Bakgatla Camp: Kurrichane Thrush, Cape Wagtail.
In Pretoria, a Hadeda Ibis was flying over the Jensen Safaris guest house.
3/12: Pretoria, KNP
Black-shouldered Kites and whydahs/widowbirds along the road to KNP.
We entered KNP at the Phalaborwa Gate. From the gate to the Mopani Camp we saw our first Martial Eagle and three Southern Ground-Hornbills - fascinating animals.
4/12: KNP
Eclipse day. Soon after we left the Mopani Camp at 04:15, we had a short glimpse of a nightjar. At the Nwarihlangari eclipse viewing site we had Levaillant's Cuckoos and Arrow-marked Babblers.
After the eclipse we drove southwards along the Shingwedzi River and continued at the road close to the Mozambiquan border. The trip along the Shingwedzi River produced an overwhelming number of species including many herons and storks, a group of Spoonbills, Comb Duck, Jacana, Black-winged Stilt, Common Sandpiper, colorful Woodland Kingfishers, and a Red-backed Shrike. Many Nile Crocodiles, Hippos, and a lot of other mammals.
At the Tropic of Capricorn Loop, vultures were gathering at a week-old Buffalo carcass (video frame).
An afternoon trip in the Mopani area and along Nshawu gave us 15 White Storks, Brown Snake-Eagles, Montagu's Harriers, a Black-bellied Bustard (photo), Namaqua Dove, Red-billed Buffalo-Weavers at nest, and a group of Red-billed Queleas with a Cinnamon-breasted Bunting. Shortly before the Mopani Camp we saw two Saddle-billed Storks flying over our heads - an amazing sight.
5/12: KNP, BRC
Before sunrise at the Tropic of Capricorn Loop, we saw five male ostriches dancing around one female - an unforgettable sight. It was too dark to even think of photographing. Shortly after, we passed a group of two male and four female Kori Bustards. A few vultures at the carcass.
Around 07:00 we stopped at three young male Lions opening a freshly killed Buffalo - another unforgettable sight.
We passed the Letaba, Olifants, and Satara camps and left KNP at the Orpen Gate. Quite a few species were added to our list while we drove southwards through KNP: Hamerkop, Yellow-billed Kite (we had seen many dark kites but this one was the only we could id 100%), Three-banded Plover, Wood Sandpiper, Speckled Mousebird, Giant Kingfisher, White-fronted Bee-eater, Grey Hornbill, Black-collared Barbet, Wire-tailed Swallow, Fork-tailed Drongo (finally we managed to id a drongo), Grey-backed Camaroptera (video frame), and Red-billed Oxpecker (a long-awaited species, the first two sitting on a Buffalo).
6/12: BRC
It was difficult to concentrate on the breakfast as we had Trumpeter Hornbill, Cape Rock-Thrush, Greater Double-collared Sunbird, and Pin-tailed Whydah (the only whydah/widowbird we managed to id) just outside the windows of the restaurant.
Other species seen at the Aventura Blydepoort Resort and in the gorge just below were: Hadeda Ibis, Jackal Buzzard, Greater Striped Swallow, Rock Martin, Olive Thrush, Familiar Chat, Red-capped Robin-Chat, Mocking Cliff-Chat, Cape Batis, Cape Wagtail, Red-winged Starling, and Cape White-eye.
7/12: BRC, Pretoria
Our last day in South Africa. Many Cattle Egrets and Black-shouldered Kites and a single Spur-winged Goose were seen along the road to Pretoria.
Closer to Pretoria, flocks of Southern Red Bishops were seen.
In Pretoria: Hadeda Ibis sitting on a street lamp, Grey Go-away-bird, Hoopoe, Fork-tailed Drongo.

Systematic list

English and Scientific names follow the "Sasol Birds of Southern Africa", 3rd edition.

Birds seen/heard by others in our group but not seen/heard by me are marked in yellow.

("Sasol III" page) English name, Scientific name, Danish name ...

  1. (142/4) Common Ostrich, Struthio camelus, Afrikansk Struds
    2/12: 1 Mankwe Dam PNP, 5/12: 6 (5 males + 1 female in play - what a sight!) Tropic of Capricorn Loop KNP
  2. (56/6) African Darter, Anhinga rufa, Afrikansk Slangehalsfugl
    1/12: PNP, 4/12: KNP
  3. (56/1) White-breasted Cormorant, Phalacrocorax lucidus, Hvidbrystet Skarv
    Common PNP, 4/12: KNP, 6/12: BRC
  4. (62/3) Little Egret, Egretta garzetta, Silkehejre
    2/12: 1 PNP, 4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP
  5. (62/2) Great (White) Egret, Egretta alba, Sølvhejre
    2/12: 2 PNP, 4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP
  6. (60/3) Grey Heron, Ardea cinerea, Fiskehejre
    30/11: PNP, 4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP
  7. (60/1) Goliath Heron, Ardea goliath, Goliathejre
    4/12: 3 ad. + 1 imm. at nest Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: 1 Olifants River KNP
  8. (62/4) Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, Kohejre
    5/12: 1 Olifants River KNP, 7/12: BRC-Pretoria
  9. (66/3) Green-backed Heron, Butorides striatus, Mangrovehejre
    4/12: 2 Shingwedzi River KNP
  10. (72/4) Hamerkop, Scopus umbretta, Hammerhoved
    5/12: 1 Letaba River KNP
  11. (68/4) Yellow-billed Stork, Mycteria ibis, Afrikansk Skovstork
    4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: Olifants Camp KNP
  12. (70/3) African Openbill (Openbilled Stork), Anastomus lamelligerus, Afrikansk Gabenæb
    4/12: 1 Shingwedzi River KNP
  13. (68/3) White Stork, Ciconia ciconia, Hvid Stork
    4/12: 15 Nshawu KNP
  14. (70/2) Saddle-billed Stork, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, Saddelnæb
    4/12: 3 Shingwedzi River KNP, 4/12: 2 north of Mopani KNP, 5/12: 2 Letaba River KNP
  15. (70/1) Marabou Stork, Leptoptilos crumeniferus, Marabustork
    4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: Olifants Camp KNP
  16. (74/1) Hadeda Ibis, Bostrychia hagedash, Hadadaibis
    2/12: 1 Pretoria, 4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP, 6/12: 2 BRC, 7/12: BRC-Pretoria, 7/12: 1 Pretoria
  17. (74/4) African Sacred Ibis, Threskiornis aethiopicus, Hellig Ibis
    30/11: ~10 PNP
  18. (72/3) African Spoonbill, Platalea alba, Afrikansk Skestork
    1/12: 1 PNP, 4/12: 12 Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: Olifants Camp KNP
  19. (78/1) White-faced Duck, Dendrocygna viduata, Nonnetræand
    1/12: PNP
  20. (76/2) Egyptian Goose, Alopochen aegyptiacus, Nilgås
    Common PNP, common KNP
  21. (76/1) Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis, Sporegås
    7/12: 1 BRC-Pretoria
  22. (76/4) Comb (Knob-billed) Duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos, Knopgås
    4/12: 1 Shingwedzi River KNP
  23. (80/2) African Black Duck, Anas sparsa, Sodfarvet And
    1/12: PNP
  24. (80/1) Yellow-billed Duck, Anas undulata, Gulnæbbet And
    1/12: PNP, 7/12: BRC-Pretoria
  25. (154/4) Secretarybird, Sagittarius serpentarius, Sekretærfugl
    1/12: 1 PNP
  26. (112/5) Black-shouldered Kite, Elanus caeruleus, Blå Glente
    Common along roads
  27. (112/4) Yellow-billed Kite, Milvus aegyptius, Gulnæbbet Glente
    Black/Yellow-billed Kite: Common KNP, 7/12: BRC-Pretoria
  28. (92/1) African Fish-Eagle, Haliaeetus vocifer, Afrikansk Flodørn
    1/12: 1 PNP, 2/12: 1 Mankwe Dam PNP, 4/12: 2 Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: 1 Letaba River KNP
  29. (88/4) Hooded Vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus, Hættegrib
    4/12: 3 Tropic of Capricorn Loop KNP, 5/12: 3 Tropic of Capricorn Loop KNP
    White-backed Vulture at Buffalo carcass. Video frame, 38K Jpeg  
  30. (86/5) (African) White-backed Vulture, Gyps africanus, Hvidrygget Grib
    4/12: 8 Tropic of Capricorn Loop KNP
    Video frame >
  31. (86/1) Lappet-faced Vulture, Torgos tracheliotus, Øregrib
    4/12: 2 Tropic of Capricorn Loop KNP
  32. (94/1) Brown Snake-Eagle, Circaetus cinereus, Mørk Slangeørn
    4/12: 2 Mopani area KNP
  33. (108/5) Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, Hedehøg
    4/12: 2 (male + female) Mopani area KNP
  34. (106/3) Steppe Buzzard, Buteo vulpinus, Steppevåge
    4/12: KNP
  35. (104/2) Jackal Buzzard, Buteo rufofuscus, Sjakalvåge
    6/12: 1 BRC
  36. (100/1) Verreaux's Eagle, Aquila verreauxii, Sort Ørn
    1/12: 2 (ad. + juv.) Ratlhogo Hide PNP
  37. (100/2) Martial Eagle, Polemaetus bellicosus, Kampørn
    3/12: 1 Phalaborwa-Mopani KNP, 4/12: 1 KNP, 5/12: 1 Olifants River KNP
  38. (136/2) Swainson's Spurfowl (Francolin), Pternistes swainsonii
    PNP, KNP
  39. (142/2) Helmeted Guineafowl, Numida meleagris, Perlehøne
    Common PNP, KNP
  40. (156/1) Kori Bustard, Ardeotis kori, Koritrappe
    1/12: 1 PNP, 5/12: 6 (2 male + 4 female) Tropic of Capricorn Loop KNP
    Black-bellied Bustard. Photo, 21K Jpeg  
  41. (160/1) Black-bellied Bustard (Korhaan), Eupodotis melanogaster, Sortbuget Trappe
    4/12: 1 Mopani area KNP
    Photo >
    Larger photo
  42. (148/5) African Jacana, Actophilornis africanus, Afrikansk Bladhøne
    4/12: 2 Shingwedzi River KNP
  43. (162/4) Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus himantopus, Stylteløber
    4/12: Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: 2 KNP
  44. (164/1) Common Ringed Plover, Charadrius hiaticula, Stor Præstekrave
    1/12: PNP, 4/12: 1 Shingwedzi River KNP
  45. (164/3) Three-banded Plover, Charadrius tricollaris, Trebåndet Præstekrave
    5/12: 3 Letaba River KNP
  46. (170/5) Blacksmith Lapwing (Plover), Vanellus armatus, Broget Vibe
    Common PNP, common KNP
  47. (168/1) Crowned Lapwing (Plover), Vanellus coronatus, Kronvibe
    1/12: 1 PNP
  48. (180/3) Wood Sandpiper, Tringa glareola, Tinksmed
    5/12: 1 Olifants River KNP
  49. (180/1) Common Sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos, Mudderklire
    4/12: 1 Shingwedzi River KNP
  50. (222/4) Laughing Dove, Streptopelia senegalensis, Senegaldue
    Common PNP, common KNP
  51. (222/3) Cape Turtle-Dove, Streptopelia capicola
    Common PNP, KNP
  52. (222/2) Red-eyed Dove, Streptopelia semitorquata, Rødøjet Skoggerdue
    1/12: 1 Ratlhogo Hide PNP
  53. (224/5) Namaqua Dove, Oena capensis, Namaquadue
    4/12: 1 Mopani area KNP, 5/12: 2 Mopani area KNP
  54. (230/6) Grey Go-away-bird (Lourie), Corythaixoides concolor, Grå Larmfugl
    Common PNP, 4/12: Mopani Camp KNP, 7/12: 1 Pretoria
  55. (234/2) Levaillant's (Striped) Cuckoo, Oxylophus levaillantii
    4/12: Nwarihlangari KNP
  56. (244/) Nightjar sp., Caprimulgus sp., Natravn sp.
    4/12: 1 north of Mopani Camp KNP
  57. (250/3) Little Swift, Apus affinis, Lille Sejler
    30/11: Pretoria, PNP, KNP - the only swift we managed to identify
  58. (252/5) Speckled Mousebird, Colius striatus
    5/12: 3 Letaba Camp KNP
  59. (256/1) Woodland Kingfisher, Halcyon senegalensis, Skovisfugl
    4/12: 2 Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: 2 Letaba Camp KNP, 5/12: 2 Olifants River KNP
  60. (254/1) Giant Kingfisher, Megaceryle maxima, Kæmpestødfisker
    5/12: 1 Olifants River KNP
  61. (254/2) Pied Kingfisher, Ceryle rudis, Gråfisker
    1/12: PNP, 4/12: Common Shingwedzi River KNP, 5/12: 1 Letaba River KNP
  62. (258/4) White-fronted Bee-eater, Merops bullockoides, Hvidpandet Biæder
    5/12: 2 Olifants River KNP
  63. (258/2) Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Merops persicus, Grøn Biæder
    1/12: 1 PNP
  64. (258/1) European Bee-eater, Merops apiaster, Biæder
    Common PNP
  65. (260/1) Southern Carmine Bee-eater, Merops nubicoides, Sydlig Karminbiæder
    30/11: 1 PNP
  66. (262/3) European Roller, Coracias garrulus, Ellekrage
    4/12: 1 Mopani area KNP
  67. (262/1) Lilac-breasted Roller, Coracias caudata, Lillabrystet Ellekrage
    1/12: 1 PNP, common KNP
  68. (268/4) African Hoopoe, Upupa africana, Afrikansk Hærfugl
    7/12: 1 Pretoria
  69. (266/6) Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus, Rødnæbbet Toko
    1/12: PNP
    Southern Yellow-billed Hornbill. Photo, 21K Jpeg  
  70. (266/5) Southern Yellow-billed Hornbill, Tockus leucomelas
    Nickname: "Flying Banana"
    Common PNP, KNP
    Photo: 5/12 Satara Camp KNP >
    Larger photo
  71. (266/4) African Grey Hornbill, Tockus nasutus, Grå Toko
    5/12: 1 Olifants Camp KNP
  72. (264/3) Trumpeter Hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator, Trompetérhornfugl
    6/12: 1 BRC
  73. (264/1) Southern Ground-Hornbill, Bucorvus leadbeateri
    3/12: 3 Phalaborwa-Mopani KNP, 4/12: 1 KNP, 5/12: 1 KNP
  74. (272/3) Black-collared Barbet, Lybius torquatus
    5/12: 1 Letaba Camp KNP
  75. (272/5) Crested Barbet, Trachyphonus vaillantii, Toppet Perleskægfugl
    30/11: 1 Pretoria, 1/12: 1 Bakgatla Camp PNP, 7/12: 1 Pretoria
  76. (294/1) Barn (European) Swallow, Hirundo rustica, Landsvale
  77. (294/3) Wire-tailed Swallow, Hirundo smithii, Trådhalesvale
    5/12: 1 Letaba River KNP
  78. (292/5) Greater Striped Swallow, Hirundo cucullata
    1/12: 2 PNP, 6/12: 2 BRC - the only red-rumped swallow we managed to identify
  79. (298/5) Rock Martin, Hirundo fuligula, Bleg Klippesvale
    6/12: BRC
  80. (300/1) Fork-tailed Drongo, Dicrurus adsimilis, Gaffelhalet Drongo
    5/12: 1 Letaba Camp KNP, 7/12: 1 Pretoria
  81. (304/2) Pied Crow, Corvus albus, Broget Krage
    1/12: Bakgatla Camp PNP, 7/12: BRC-Pretoria
  82. (308/1) Arrow-marked Babbler, Turdoides jardineii, Plettet Larmdrossel
    4/12: Nwarihlangari KNP
  83. (310/3) Dark-capped (Blackeyed) Bulbul, Pycnonotus tricolor
  84. (316/1) Cape Rock-Thrush, Monticola rupestris, Kapstendrossel
    6/12: 1 BRC
  85. (314/4) Kurrichane Thrush, Turdus libonyanus, Kurrichanedrossel
    2/12: 2 ad. feeding 1 imm. Bakgatla Camp PNP, 5/12: Letaba Camp KNP
  86. (314/3) Olive Thrush, Turdus olivaceus, Olivendrossel
    6/12: 1 BRC
  87. (314/2) Karoo Thrush, Turdus smithi
    30/11: 1 Pretoria
  88. (318/1) Familiar Chat, Cercomela familiaris
    6/12: BRC
  89. (324/2) Red-capped Robin-Chat (Natal Robin), Cossypha natalensis
    6/12: 1 BRC
  90. (322/3) Mocking Cliff-Chat, Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris
    6/12: 1 BRC
  91. (356/5) African Paradise-Flycatcher, Terpsiphone viridis, Afrikansk Paradisfluesnapper
    1 female PNP
    Grey-backed Camaroptera (Bleating Warbler). Video frame, 25K Jpeg  
  92. (340/7) Grey-backed Camaroptera (Bleating Warbler), Camaroptera brevicaudata
    5/12: 1 Letaba Camp KNP
    Video frame >
  93. (360/2) Cape Batis, Batis capensis, Kapbatis
    6/12: 1 BRC
  94. (362/1) Cape Wagtail, Motacilla capensis, Kapvipstjert
    30/11: 2 PNP, 2/12: 1 Bakgatla Camp PNP, 6/12: 2 BRC
  95. (372/4) Red-backed Shrike, Lanius collurio, Rødrygget Tornskade
    4/12: 1 Shingwedzi River KNP
  96. (372/2) Magpie (African Long-tailed) Shrike, Corvinella melanoleuca
    Common KNP
  97. (382/5) Red-winged Starling, Onychognathus morio, Rødvinget Sortstær
    Common PNP, KNP, 6/12: BRC
  98. (380/2) Cape Glossy Starling, Lamprotornis nitens
    Common PNP, KNP
  99. (380/1) Greater Blue-eared Starling, Lamprotornis chalybaeus, Blåøret Glansstær
  100. (384/1) Common (Indian) Myna, Acridotheres tristis, Almindelig Mynah
    30/11: Pretoria, 1/12: Bakgatla Camp PNP, 7/12: Pretoria
  101. (384/5) Red-billed Oxpecker, Buphagus erythrorhynchus, Rødnæbbet Oksehakker
    5/12: 5 Letaba-Olifants KNP
  102. (392/1) Greater Double-collared Sunbird, Cinnyris afra, Stor Halsbåndsolfugl
    6/12: 2 (male + female) BRC
  103. (358/5) Cape White-eye, Zosterops virens
    1/12: 3 Bakgatla Camp PNP, 6/12: BRC
  104. (394/2) House Sparrow, Passer domesticus, Gråspurv
    1/12: Bakgatla Camp PNP, 7/12: Pretoria
  105. (394/3) Cape Sparrow, Passer melanurus, Kapspurv
    1/12: 2 (male + female) Bakgatla Camp PNP
  106. (394/6) Southern Grey-headed Sparrow, Passer diffusus
    1/12: 1 Bakgatla Camp PNP
  107. (396/1) Red-billed Buffalo-Weaver, Bubalornis niger, Rødnæbbet Bøffelvæver
    4/12: 3 Nshawu KNP
  108. (398/2) Southern Masked-Weaver, Ploceus velatus, Sydlig Maskevæver
    Common Bakgatla Camp PNP, KNP
  109. (402/1) Red-billed Quelea, Quelea quelea, Blodnæbsvæver
    4/12: ~20 Nshawu KNP
  110. (402/4) Southern Red Bishop, Euplectes orix
    7/12: BRC-Pretoria
  111. (406/1) Pin-tailed Whydah, Vidua macroura, Dominikanerenke
    6/12: 1 male BRC - the only whydah/widowbird we managed to identify
  112. (424/4) Cinnamon-breasted (Rock) Bunting, Emberiza tahapisi
    4/12: 1 Nshawu KNP


Text and photos: Stig Linander, video frame of Grey-backed Camaroptera: Birgit Linander
Created: 2002-12-16, last revised: 2012-09-24